KJ Tait

81-103 King’s Road, London

King’s Road Properties Ltd
Project team

81-103 King’s Road is a proposed 17,000m2 mixed-use development located in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London. KJ Tait Engineers calculated the Whole Life-Cycle Carbon (WLC) of the proposed building that conforms with the London Plan 2021 requirements for referable buildings.


In line with BS EN 15978, the following modules must be assessed:

  • Module A – Product/Construction
  • Module B – In Use
  • Module C – End of Life
  • Module D – Benefits beyond the system boundary

Using OneClick LCA software, a baseline model was created from the RIBA Stage 2 Cost Plan and material benchmark data from RICS Whole Life Carbon Assessment for the Built Environment. Options to reduce the life-cycle carbon emissions were assessed with the Design Team and the associated carbon savings were calculated.


Measures Implemented


The following measures were agreed by the Design Team:

  • Concrete with at least 60% Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag replacement – expected saving 75kgCO2e
  • 100% recycled reinforcement – expected saving 8kgCO2e
  • 40% recycled structural steel – expected saving 16kgCO2e
  • CLT floor slabs – expected saving 12kgCO2e

Together with the above measures, the upper floors will benefit from mixed-mode ventilation. This is expected to save 134kgCO2e/m2 in use, using today’s carbon factor.




The resultant scheme is one that betters the Greater London Authorities’ aspirational benchmark for offices for modules A, B and C.


Module Aspirational Benchmark (kgCO2e/m2) Building Benchmark (kgCO2/m2)
A 550 - 600 518
B & C 250 - 300 240